Variabilitas Musim Hujan Terkait Suhu Muka Laut Samudera Pasifik (Wilayah Nino 3.4) di Zona Musim Nusa Tenggara Barat
Keywords:Variability, Sea Surface Temperature, Onset Rainy Season, Rainy Nature, El Nino, La Nina
Tropical climate elements, especially rainfall, are a climate phenomenon that varies greatly both spatially and temporally. The criteria for the beginning of the season in Indonesia use more rainfall accumulation in ten days (10 days). This study examines the variability of the rainy season in the West Nusa Tenggara (NTB) region associated with sea surface temperature anomalies in the Pacific Ocean. The variability of the beginning of the rainy season and the accumulation of rainy season were processed from the basic rainfall data in 21 areas of the season zone for the period 1981-2010, as well as in 2010/2011 and 2015/2016. Meanwhile, the Ocean Nino Index (ONI) data used is the period 1998-2016 which was downloaded from http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/enso/history/ln-2010-12/three-phases-ofENSO .shtml. The results show that based on the ONI index data period 1998-2016, there were three El Nino events with moderate-very strong intensity and 5 La Nina events with moderate-strong intensity. The very strong El Nino phenomenon occurred in 2015 with an ONI index value of more than +2.5, while La Nina was strong with the highest index occurring in 2010 (> -1.5). The beginning of the rainy season in the 2010 La Nina year generally in most parts of West Nusa Tenggara progressed 1 to 10 decades against the average, except for the eastern and northern parts of Sumbawa Besar which are equal to the average. Meanwhile, the beginning of the rainy season in the 2015 El Nino year generally in most parts of West Nusa Tenggara retreated 1 to 4 decades from the average, except for Bima and northern Dompu which were equal to the average. The percentage of rainfall and the nature of the rainy season in La Nina 2010/2011 generally in most parts of West Nusa Tenggara Normal with a value of 86% to 114%, except for most of Sumbawa Besar, Bima and upper western part of Dompu Above Normal with values of more than 115% . Meanwhile, in the rainy season in El Nino 2015/2016 generally in most parts of West Nusa Tenggara it is Normal with a value of 90% to 112%, except for most of Lombok, parts of southern Sumbawa Besar, and eastern part of Dompu is Below Normal with a value of 48% to 84%.
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